Between July and October 2004 a very dense small aperture 2D array was deployed on the active landslide of Cavola di Toano. The experiment object was a detailed study of seismic waves propagation in an heterogeneous medium characterized by a complex 3D geometry, with the aim of modeling the site amplification (credits).
Cavola village is located in the Comune di Toano territory at the boundary of the Provincia di Modena and Provincia di Reggio Emilia territories.
The landslide has an historical record of activity with the 1960 reactivation destroying part of the village.

The landslide is made up of clay body sliding over mudstone-shale basement tectonally cracked and with a high content of pelite (Fig. 1).

Cavola was selected by geologists of Province di Modena e Reggio Emilia because the coupling between its geological and urban setting is typical of the Northern Appenines.
95 identical portable seismometer were deployed in a grid configuration of 130 m x 56 m, with minimum and maximum interstation distance of 8 and 10 m respectively. Such geometry was designed to achieve coherence up to 5 Hz. In addition, 4 stations were deployed in the urban area of Cavola. The local array was complemented by a 5 stations regional network to locate microseismicity

The seismometers of the local array were GURALP CMG-6TD from SEISUK equipment. The CMG-6T seismometer is a Guralp broadband 3 component station with an integral 3Gbyte of solid state memory. The regional network deployed Reftek 130 acquisition systems coupled with Lennartz sensors from INGV, CNT.

The experiment was co-funded by INGV and a contract with Provincia di Modena and Provincia di Reggio Emilia, in collaboration with the Department of Earth Sciences of the Cambridge University (UK), SEISUK-NERC, Servizio Geologico, Sismico e dei Suoli of the Regione Emilia Romagna and Comune di Toano.

Preliminary investigation
Testing the instruments
Servicing and data download
Recording examples
Borehole drilling and Downhole measurements
Extra photos